Prostrate Cancer

What is Prostate Cancer?

A prostate is a gland found in all males of our species. The function of a prostate gland is to produce seminal fluid. The fluid is supposed to provide nourishment and enable the transport of the human sperm. A cancer of the prostate is when the cancer begins in its gland cells. Weighing around 30 grams, the prostate surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder. Prostate cancer therefore is naturally a type of cancer that originates in the prostate gland. It is when a group of cells start dividing at an abnormal rate. It is one of the most common forms of cancer found in men. The treatment and recovery depend on the stage of progression at which you have been diagnosed.

Our Oncology team at Medica has some of the best oncologists and oncosurgeons who are well supported by state-of-the-art cancer treatment equipment and technologies. We are offering our patients comprehensive therapeutics, surgery and post-surgery care at transparent rates.

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Types

Adenocarcinomas are the most common type of prostate cancer. And almost 95% of the times the person suffering from prostate cancer is suffering from this type. Adenocarcinomas begin in the prostate gland cells. Prostate fluid is produced by gland cells. Semen is formed when this fluid interacts with sperm. There are two forms of cancer that can develop in these cells:

Acinar Adenocarcinoma

This is the type that the majority has. It starts in the gland cells lining the prostate gland.

Ductal Adenocarcinoma

This type begins in the cells that border the prostate gland’s ducts (or tubes). It tends to be more aggressive than the other form. It is known to grow and spread more quickly as a result of this.

Other Types

Small-Cell Carcinoma

Small cell prostate cancer affects about one out of every 100 men (1 percent). It is the most aggressive form of neuroendocrine cancer in the prostate, which arises in small round neuroendocrine cells.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of prostate cancer that develops in the flat cells that cover the prostate glands and grows quickly.

Transitional Cell Carcinoma

Transitional cell carcinoma, also known as urothelial cancer, is a kind of prostate cancer that can originate in the urethra or bladder and spread to the prostate, or it can start in the prostate and spread to the urethra or bladder and spread to the prostate.

Neuroendocrine Tumors

Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors that do not produce PSA (prostate-specific antigen) and appear in nerve and gland cells that create and release hormones into the bloodstream.

Soft Tissue Sarcoma

This begins in the supporting tissues. Muscle, nerves, fat, and blood arteries are all examples. These malignancies are extremely rare in the prostate. They make up less than 0.1 percent of all instances. Prostate cancer affects less than 1 in 1,000 males.

Prostate cancer can spread throughout the body or recur in the prostate or elsewhere following treatment. The following cancers are among them:

Prostate cancer that returns after therapy is known as recurrent prostate cancer. A local recurrence is another name for it. Treatment for prostate cancer is intended to eradicate malignant cells, however it may leave some cells undiscovered. Prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is known as metastatic prostate cancer. These cancer cells could have made their way through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. A localized or distant recurrence of the original prostate cancer is also known as a metastasis.

Symptoms

Prostate cancer symptoms usually go undetected in its initial stages of progression. Also, most of these symptoms vary for every affected individual.

The common signs of prostate cancer are as follows:

  • Blood in Urine or Haematuria
  • Loss of Bladder Control
  • Frequent urination (especially at night)
  • Pain during Urination
  • Burning Sensation during Urination
  • Erectile Dysfunction
  • Swelling
  • Pain in Lower Back
  • Numbness below Waist
  • Blood in Semen

In the metastasized stage of prostate cancer, symptoms like fatigue, anemia, lymphoedema, bowel issues, and other more aggressive symptoms are also shown by the patient.

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Causes

Around 1 in 8 males will receive a diagnosis of prostate cancer at some point in their life. Knowing what causes it can help one fight it better. Prostate cancer can because of various factors such as:

  • Age: Every man is at a risk. Those who are above 40 are at risk of prostate cancer
  • Race or Ethnicity: Research shows that prostate cancer is increasing among Asian people living in urbanized environments, such as Hong Kong, Singapore and India.
  • Genetic Mutation: Over time, individuals can develop symptoms due to changes in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
  • Exposure to Chemicals: Prolonged exposure to certain chemicals can also alter your genes and can cause your cells to behave abnormally.

Modifiable Risk factors

  • Inactivity: Leading a seditious lifestyle devoid of any physical activity can put you at risk of prostate cancer.
  • Diet: Having a diet rich in red meats or dairy products can also set off symptoms of prostate cancer.
  • Lynch Syndrome: Lynch syndrome is a gene change you can get at birth. It can increase your chances of getting cancers, including prostate cancer.
  • Smoking: Some researchers have shown smoking cigarettes can affect your chances.
Stages

Prostate cancer is classified into the following clinical stages:

T1: During the DRE or imaging (e.g., a computed tomography (CT) scan or transrectal ultrasound), the tumor cannot be felt or seen. It could be discovered through surgery for another medical problem.

  • T1a: The tumor is discovered accidentally during a surgical procedure used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is the abnormal growth of benign prostate cells. Cancer is only found in 5 percent or less of the tissue removed.
  • T1b: The tumor is found accidentally during BPH surgery. Cancer cells are detected in more than 5 percent of the tissue removed.
  • T1c: The tumor is found during a needle biopsy that was performed because of an elevated PSA level.

T2: The prostate tumor appears to be contained. The doctor may feel the tumor during the DRE because of its size. Imaging may potentially reveal the malignancy.

  • T2a: One-half (or less) of one side of the prostate has been invaded by the tumor.
  • T2b: The tumor has progressed to over half of one side of the prostate, but not both.
  • T2c: The prostate cancer has spread to both sides.

T3: The tumor has spread beyond the prostate gland. It’s possible that it’s spread to the seminal vesicles.

  • T3a: The tumor has grown outside of the prostate, but it has not reached the seminal vesicles.
  • T3b: The malignancy has progressed to the seminal vesicles (seminal vesicles).

T4: The tumor has migrated to regions other than the seminal vesicles around the prostate. The cancer could be growing in the rectum, bladder, urethral sphincter (muscle that controls urine), or pelvic wall, for example.

Diagnosis

Every man should always keep a lookout for even the mildest symptoms. Generally it is advised to men to get routine checks done once they cross over 30. But if you are experiencing even mild symptoms of prostate cancer or inflammation, you should immediately book an appointment with a doctor.

Symptoms like extreme pain in abdomen or bloody discharge may warrant an immediate cancer screening.

You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:

  • Choose a healthy diet full of fruits and vegetables.
  • Choose healthy foods over supplements.
  • Exercise most days of the week.
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Talk to your doctor about increased risk of prostate cancer.
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Treatment

If you’ve been diagnosed with prostate cancer, your cancer treatment choices will be discussed with you by our cancer care team. It’s critical to weigh the advantages of each treatment option against the potential hazards and negative effects.

Medical Procedure: Treatment procedures like particle therapy, tele-therapy, brachytherapy and radiation therapy can be used in combination with other forms of treatment to cure one’s cancer.

Surgery: Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy, Radiosurgery, Prostatectomy, Radical retropubic prostatectomy and Laparoscopic surgery etc., are some of the surgical methods used by oncosurgeons.

Medications: Hormone Associated Therapy, Bone health, Chemotherapy, Hormone and Urinary retention medication, all these fall under the expertise of a medical oncologist who along with other experts determine the course and treatment for your medications.

Other forms of support and palliative treatments are also given to the patient as well.

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