Complete Care for Ear, Nose and Throat
ENT problems can cause irritating symptoms that range from a runny nose, sneezing, fever, sore throat and coughs to severe complications such as hearing loss, and meningitis. Some of the common ENT problems are throat infection, laryngitis, sinusitis, hearing impairment, nasal bleeding, vertigo, change of voice and ringing noise in the ears. ENT physicians are doctors who specialise in medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with problems of the ear, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck.
Medica ENT Institute, the first of its kind in eastern India offers comprehensive treatment and care for all kinds of ENT ailments. Specialists at the institute provide medicinal as well as surgical solutions to problems ranging from hearing loss and sleeping disorders to sinusitis, vertigo and voice impairments.
Some common ENT problems
An irritation or scratchy feeling in the throat is what is referred to a sore throat. The usual cause is a viral infection (cold/flu) called Pharyngitis, which usually resolves by itself. However, the less common variety, Strep throat (streptococcal infection), is a bacterial infection that requires treatment.
Symptoms of Sore Throat:
- Pain or scratchy feeling in the throat
- More painful while talking or swallowing
- Soreness & swelling of glands in neck or jaw
- Tonsils have white patches or pus
- Hoarse voice
Sore Throat Infections cause:
- Runny nose/Sneezing
- Body aches/Headache
- Viral Throat infections
Causes of Viral infection:
- Common cold
- Flu (influenza)
- Croup — a common childhood illness producing a harsh, barking cough
Causes of Bacterial infection:
- Streptococcus pyogenes is the most common one causing strep throat.
- Allergies (pet dander, molds, dust, pollen). A postnasal drip can further irritate and inflame the throat.
- Dry indoor air can make the throat feel scratchy.
- Irritants such as air pollution can cause a chronic sore throat as can use of tobacco, alcohol and spicy foods.
- Yelling or talking loudly for long periods also cause muscle strain.
- A digestive system disorder, GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease) causes stomach acids to back up in the food pipe, causing soreness of throat.
Some other symptoms include heartburn, hoarseness, regurgitation of stomach contents, feeling a lump in the throat, HIV infection, Cancerous tumours, etc.
The best way to prevent sore throats is to avoid the germs that cause them and practice good hygiene.
A sore throat caused by a viral infection usually lasts five to seven days and doesn't require medical treatment, except for mild pain relievers. Bacterial infections need to be treated with antibiotics. If a sore throat is caused by some other reason, treatment will depend on diagnosis.
Ear Infections: A Big Deal for Small Ears
Your hearing is muffled and there is a pain in your ear— you might be suffering from an ear infection.
Are you surprised because you probably typically associate ‘ear infection’ with children – who are more prone to them? In reality, people of any age can develop one.
An ear infection occurs when a viral or bacterial infection affects the middle ear — the sections of the ear behind the eardrum. Ear infections can be painful due to the inflammation and fluid build-up in the middle ear.
- Ear infections can be acute or chronic
- Acute ear infections are painful and short-termed
- Chronic ear infections either recur frequently or don’t clear up. Chronic ear infections may cause permanent damage to the inner and middle ear
What are Some of the Common Signs and Symptoms?
The symptoms of an ear infection may come and go or persist for a long time. Symptoms may occur in one or both the ears. Pain is more severe if there is an infection in both your ears. Some of the common signs and symptoms are as follows:
- Persistent ear pain
- Tugging at the ears
- Decrease in hearing due to fluid build-up behind the drum
- Cold symptoms
How to Know If You Have an Ear Infection?
An ear nose throat (ENT) specialist can look into your ear with a lighted, magnifying instrument to see if there is inflammation or fluid build-up. That’s the tell-tale sign of an ear infection.
Who is Most Commonly Affected?
Ear infections can affect anyone but the peak age is between six months and two years. Children under seven years are prone to ear infections due to the angle of their Eustachian tubes. The Eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the throat and becomes inflamed during a virus attack. As children grow, the angle of the tube increases, making them less prone to accumulating fluid.Infants who are usually bottle-fed may have a higher incidence of ear infections compared to their breast-fed counterparts.
How Do You Get an Ear Infection?
What started as a cold, a sinus infection or a sore throatcan become an inner ear infection whenitspreads to the Eustachian tubes through the back of the nose and/or throat. Outer ear infections can be due to water staying in the ear after swimming or if something has scratched the outer part of the ear.
Are Ear Infections Contagious?
An ear infection is not contagious but if the cause behind it is a cold, then it could be contagious.
What Will Ease the Pain from an Ear Infection?
In many cases, an ear infection clears up on its own within a few days.
- Antibiotics may be necessary if the pain continues for many days without improving or if you are running a fever
- Pain relievers can also be prescribed to relieve the pain
- Putting a warm compress on the ear may also help
Will the Hearing Come Back After an Ear Infection?
In the majority of cases, yes. But in rare cases, complications can lead to complete hearing loss.
How to Prevent Ear Infections?
- Immunize: Ensure that your child is up to date with the vaccination schedule, including a yearly flu vaccine. Vaccinated children tend to suffer from fewer ear infections.
- Good hygiene: Stress the importance of washing hands frequently to limit the spread of germs which can lead to coldand subsequent infection.
- Stop smoking: Children exposed to nicotine suffer from more ear infections than those without exposure.
A Few Take-Home Points
- Colds lasting longer than 7-10 days with ear symptoms should be evaluated by a doctor
- Antibiotics are not always required to treat ear infections
- Fluid may be present in the middle ear following infection for up to three months
- Children can typically experience ear infections and usually do not suffer from hearing problems
Common Disorders of the Nose
Sinusitis: It is often a chronic (ongoing) disease that includes the symptoms of nasal obstruction (difficulty breathing through the nose), nasal drainage, decreased sense of smell, facial pressure, and frequent sinus infections. It can also result in allergies and respiratory problems like asthma.
Symptoms: Pain in your face, upper teeth or in your ear, and drainage that is obstructed or abnormal, or nasal congestion.
Medical treatment includes anti-inflammatory nasal sprays, decongestants, oral inflammatory inhibitors, and systemic steroid medications, and is often recommended for a long period.
In some cases, surgery is advised, which is done using a telescope (endoscope) placed through the nostril, and often referred to as Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. Since this is a minimally invasive surgery, no external incisions are done.
Nasal & Sinus Polyps: Nasal polyps occur when the lining of the sinuses swell, and these may block a) the nasal airway, creating difficulty in breathing, b) the natural drainage of the sinus cavities leading to infections. It is important to continue medications after endoscopic surgery, and to ensure that there is no recurrence of the polyps.
Smell and Taste Disorders: Any disorder in the senses of smell and taste can greatly reduce the quality of life. The reasons could be chronic rhinosinusitis, polyps, allergic rhinitis, upper respiratory infection, trauma, tumours or other neurological disorders. These are carefully evaluated and treatment would depend on the problem and the severity of the loss
Allergy: ENT doctors specialize in treatment of problems in nasal cavity and sinuses. Other problems include allergies, smell disorders, polyps, and nasal obstruction due to a deviated septum.
Deviated septum: A wall of cartilage, called the nasal septum, divides the nose into 2 separate chambers. A deviated septum results when this wall is shifted away from the midline, which may cause congestion, problems with breathing, or nasal discharge. Breathing problem is a common symptom, and also normal sinus drainage may get affected, causing repeat sinus infection.
Treatment will depend on how severe the symptoms are. A reconstructive surgery called Septoplasty is done through the nostrils to correct a deviated nasal septum.
Rhinitis: It is caused due to a reaction that causes a stuffy or runny nose, sneezing, and itching. Most types of rhinitis are caused by an inflammation that lead to symptoms in the eyes, ears, or throat. There are several types. The most common causes of rhinitis are pollen, dust mites, mold, cockroach waste, animal dander, fumes and odours, extreme temperature or temperature changes, hormonal changes, certain medicines and overuse of topical nose sprays, environment changes, irritants such as strong odours and tobacco smoke, and certain foods or spices.
- LASER for various surgeries
- Microdebrider including laryngeal microdebrider
- Harmonic Scalpel
- Atmos Stroboscope
- Sialendoscope for endoscopy
Comprehensive & Advanced care for all ENT cases
All routine ENT surgeries like Tympanoplasty, Mastoidectomy, Stapedotomy, FESS, Rhinoplasty, Microlaryngeal Surgery, Phonosurgery, Septoplasty
Advanced ENT surgeries like:
- Paediatric Airway Surgery
- Laryngeal/Tracheal Stenoses
- Endoscopic Skull base surgery for CSF leak,
- Pituitary tumours
- Frontal Sinus Disease
- Lateral Skull-base surgery
- Cochlear Implantation – on totally deaf patients
- Hearing loss & Ear Discharge Clinic
- Snoring & Sleep Disorder Clinic, including treatment for Sleep Apnoea
- Dizziness/Vertigo Clinic
- Headache & Sinusitis Clinic
- Voice Clinic
- Nose Block & Nasal Allergy Clinic
Paediatric ENT Clinic
- Full ENT Examination
- Paediatric Examination
- Post Consultation Assessment
Diagnostic facilities include:
- Rigid Endoscopy( A Telescope Attached With A Light To See The Nose)
- Flexible Endoscopy( A Same Telescope But Softer And Can Be Bent Inside)
- Free Field Audio( Hearing Test)
- B & O Audio(Hearing Test)
- OAE (Hearing Test)
- BERA (Hearing Test)
- ASSR (Hearing Test)
- Formal Hearing Therapy
- Formalised Tailor Made Speech Therapy
Get your new-born’s hearing tested before leaving hospital!
Hearing test for the new-born? You are shocked, right? Yes, you read that right and let me explain why this is important. When a baby is born, its inner ear (comprising the cochlea i.e. the sensory organ for hearing, and the vestibule i.e. sensory organ for balance) is fully formed and of adult size. But the baby only starts to utter monosyllabic sounds (ba-ba, da-da, ma-ma etc) at the age of around 1. Why is it so? Read more…..