Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Surgical Intervention

The heart is a muscular organ found in all vertebrates that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The term cardiac (as in cardiology) means “related to the heart” and comes from the Greek word, kardia, for “heart.”

From the moment it begins beating until the moment it stops, the human heart works tirelessly. In an average lifetime, the heart beats more than two and a half billion times, without ever pausing to rest. Like a pumping machine, the heart provides the power needed for life.

There are many types of heart diseases. Common among them is the Coronary heart disease. Coronary artery disease is a disease of the artery caused by the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium. Angina pectoris (chest pain) and myocardial infarction (heart attack) are symptoms of and conditions caused by coronary heart disease.

Causes of Heart Failure

Causes of heart failure are difficult to analyze due to challenges in diagnosis, differences in populations & age.

Common causes ranked as per their risk factor:

  • Ischaemic Heart Disease 62%
  • Cigarette Smoking 16%
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure)10%
  • Obesity 8%
  • Diabetes 3%
  • Valvular heart disease 2% (much higher in older populations)

Rarer causes of heart failure:

  • Viral Myocarditis (an infection of the heart muscle)
  • Infiltrations of the muscle such as amyloidosis
  • HIV cardiomyopathy (caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus)
  • Connective Tissue Diseases such as Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Abuse of drugs such as alcohol
  • Pharmaceutical drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents
  • Pharmaceutical drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents

Obstructive Sleep Apnea, a condition of sleep disordered breathing, overlaps with obesity, hypertension and diabetes and is regarded as an independent cause of heart failure.

Signs and Symptoms

Classical symptoms of acute myocardial infarction include:

  • Sudden chest pain (typically radiating to the left arm or left side of the neck)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Palpitations
  • Sweating
  • Anxiety (often described as a sense of impending doom)

Women may experience fewer typical symptoms than men, most commonly shortness of breath, weakness, a feeling of indigestion, and fatigue. Approximately one quarter of all myocardial infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms.

Conditions/diseases that can be treated at the Medica Institute of Cardiac Sciences

  • Angina / Unstable Angina
  • Acute Heart Attack (MI)
  • Acute shortness of breath / Heart failure Valvular Disease
  • Congenital Heart Diseases Patients requiring pacemaker
  • Patients with abnormal heart rate (Arrythmia)
  • Syncope or faint attacks

Facilities Available

Diagnostic (Non-Invasive)

  • ECG (12-lead, computerised)
  • TMT
  • Holter monitor
  • Stress echo
  • Tilt-table test
  • Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring
  • Echo-cardiography (Colour Doppler, trans-esophageal and 3D )
  • Preventive cardiology (lifestyle modification, control of risk factors)

Diagnostic (Invasive)

  • Coronary Angiography
  • Femoral
  • Radial (Day care procedure)
  • Carotid/cerebral
  • Peripheral/renal
  • Electrophysiology (arrhythmia study)
  • Intravascular ultrasound
  • FFR study
  • Cardiac catheterisation & haemodynamic study
  • Catheterisation & evaluation of congenital heart disease

Therapeutic Intervention

Diagnostic (Non-Invasive)

  • Elective Coronary Angioplasty and stent implant
  • Primary or emergency Coronary Angioplasty (during early hours of MI)
  • Renal Angioplasty
  • Carotid Angioplasty
  • Limb artery Angioplasty
  • Aorta intervention
  • Pericardial fluid aspiration
  • Balloon Valvuloplasty (Mitral, Aortic, Pulmonary, Tricuspid valve ballooning)
  • Device (ASD, VSD, PDA) closure of holes in the heart
  • Acute intervention after birth (TGA, PDA opening)
  • Closure of abnormal arterial channels in children

Pacing Modalities Group

  • Pacemaker implantation (single/dual chamber, bi-ventricular)
  • Multi-site pacing
  • Ablation therapy for SBT, VT, AF, WPW
  • Stent valve implantation

Surgical Intervention


  • Off-Pump
  • Multi-Vessel Total Arterial Bypass(LIMA-RIMA Y) Valve surgery

Valve Surgery

  • Aortic Valve Replacement / Repair
  • Mitral Valve Replacement/Repair
  • Double Valve Replacement
  • Tricuspid Valve repair
  • Stent-less Aortic Valve
  • Replacement
  • Aortic Root Surgery (Bentalls Operation, ROSS Procedure)

Congenital Heart Surgery

  • ASD Closure
  • VSD Closure
  • PDA Ligation
  • BT Shun
  • BD Glenn Shunt
  • Fontan’s Procedure
  • TAPVC Repair
  • Total Correction of TOF
  • Rastelli’s Procedure
  • Senning’s Operation
  • Arterial Switch for DTGA
  • Double Switch for CCTGA
  • Norwood Procedure
  • Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery
  • Hybrid Surgery

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Our Doctors

Dr. Kunal Sarkar
Dr. Kunal Sarkar

Senior Vice Chairman, Cardiac Surgeon, Head MICS FRCS (ED), FRCS (Glasg), MNMS

Dr. Sandip Sardar
Dr. Sandip Sardar

Consultant, Cardiac Surgery MBBS, MS (General Surgery), MCh (CTVS)

Dr. Mrinal Bandhu Das
Dr. Mrinal Bandhu Das

Senior Consultant - Medica Institute of Cardiac Sciences

MBBS, MS (General Surgery), M Ch (Cardio Vascular & Thoracic Surgery)

Dr. Subhankar Bhattacharya
Dr. Subhankar Bhattacharya

Senior Consultant - Cardiac Surgery (Visiting) MBBS, MS (General Surgery), M Ch (Cardio Thoracic Surgery)

Dr. Ashutosh Samal
Dr. Ashutosh Samal

Associate Consultant Cardiac Surgeon MBBS, MS (General Surgery), M.Ch ( CTVS)

(Prof.) Dr. Rabin Chakraborty
(Prof.) Dr. Rabin Chakraborty

Senior Vice Chairman - Cardiology Services (Medica Group) MBBS, MD (Internal Medicine), DNB (Internal Medicine), MRCP, FRCP (London), FRCP(Glasgow), FRCP (Ireland) FACC (USA), FICC, FICP, DM(Cardiology).

Dr. Dilip Kumar
Dr. Dilip Kumar

Consultant Interventional Cardiologist and Electrophysiologist Chief Academic Co-ordinator MD, DM, FRCP (GLASG), CCDS (IBHRE), FSCAI, FESC

Dr. Arindam Pande
Dr. Arindam Pande

Consultant – Cardiology Services MBBS, MD (Medicine), DNB (Internal Medicine), DM(Cardiology), FESC, FACC(USA).

Dr. Soumya Patra
Dr. Soumya Patra

Consultant – Cardiology Services MBBS, MD (Paediatrics), DM(Cardiology), FACC, FESC.

Dr. Rana Rathor Roy
Dr. Rana Rathor Roy

Consultant (Interventional) MD, DM

Dr. Anil Kumar Singhi
Dr. Anil Kumar Singhi

Sr Consultant Cardiologist MD (Paediatrics), FNB (Paediatric Cardiology), Fellowship (Cardiology)

Dr. Sanjeev Garg
Dr. Sanjeev Garg

Head - Non-Invasive Cardiology MD ( Gen. Med.)

Dr. Sumanto Mukhopadhyay
Dr. Sumanto Mukhopadhyay

Associate Consultant – Cardiology Services MBBS, MD (Medicine), DM(Cardiology)

Dr. Arvind Kumar
Dr. Arvind Kumar

Consultant (Interventional) MD, DNB (Cardiology)

Dr. Somnath Dey
Dr. Somnath Dey

Consultant - Cardiology Services MBBS,MD(Anaesthesiology), DM(Cardiac Anaesthesiology)

Dr. J. Naik
Dr. J. Naik

Sr Consultant (Interventional) MD (Gen.Med.) DM (Cardiology)

Dr. Soumik Basu
Dr. Soumik Basu

Consultant (Interventional) MD, DM (Cardiology)

Dr.(Prof.) Bhabatosh Biswas
Dr.(Prof.) Bhabatosh Biswas

Consultant - MICS MBBS, MS(General Surgery),DNB(General Surgery), MCh (Cardio Thoracic Surgery), FRCS

Dr. Soumya Kanti Mohapatra
Dr. Soumya Kanti Mohapatra

Junior Consultant - Medica Institute of Cardiology Services MBBS, DNB, FNB (Paediatric Cardiology)

Dr. Sk. Saiful Haque Zahed
Dr. Sk. Saiful Haque Zahed

Associate Consultant - Cardiology Services MBBS, MD(Internal Medicine), MRCP Part 1 & 2,PACES, DNB(Cardiology)