Balloon angioplasty and stent placement at medica

Angioplasty

Comprehensive Heart Disease Treatment with Angioplasty at Medica

The term “angioplasty” refers to the use of a balloon to open a narrowed or blocked artery. These days, angioplasty procedures, however, also include inserting a short wire-mesh tube, known as a stent, into the artery during the procedure. The stent is permanently implanted to allow blood to flow more freely. Interventional cardiologists use a catheter, which is a long, thin tube with a small balloon on the tip to perform a ‘Balloon Angioplasty’. They inflate the balloon at the site of the artery blockage in order to flatten or compress the plaque against the artery wall. If the doctor determines that a stent will help keep the artery from closing or re-closing, then a stent is also placed to support the artery.

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Why is There a Need for Angioplasty?

It is a type of surgery done in urgent situations, such as a heart attack. Angioplasty is also known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angioplasty is a usual treatment method in the case of coronary heart disease (CHD) or heart attacks (acute coronary syndrome).

But most angioplasties are done to patients who have blockages in the arteries.

Symptoms of Clogged Arteries

The following are some of the symptoms of clogged arteries:

Shortness of Breath

Shortness of Breath

Chest Pain

Chest Pain

Nausea

Nausea

Irregular Heart Beat

Irregular Heart Beat

Dizziness

Dizziness

Types of Angioplasties

Angioplasty with stenting has changed the cure of coronary artery disease. Majorly two types of angioplasties:

  • Balloon Angioplasty: Balloon angioplasty is the procedure to widen the arteries. The doctor inserts the catheter with a small balloon on its tip. As the catheter reaches the area of blockage, the doctor inflates it. It results in the widening of the artery at the site of the blockage.
  • Stent Placement: The doctor places the stent in the artery to keep the blood vessel open. The doctor permanently places the stent in the arteries. These stents are made of metal or plastic mesh-like products. The doctor places them in larger arteries. Stents are very useful in the various treatment arteries and other problems.

It is a surgical method to keep the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle open. Doctors usually perform this procedure just after a heart attack. There are high survival chances in patients who have angioplasty surgery immediately after a heart attack. Therefore, there should not be any delay if the patient has a heart attack.

What are the Risks Associated with Angioplasty?

The risks associated with Angioplasty are:

  • Allergic reaction after anaesthesia or with dye
  • Bleeding
  • Tissue discoloration, blood clot in the stent
  • Abnormal heartbeat
  • Injury to a blood vessel, heart valve, or artery
  • Heart attack
  • Kidney damage
  • Infection
  • Breathing problems.
  • Re-tightening of the artery.
  • Damaged artery

Given the medical history and current condition our skilled cardiac surgeons perform this complex surgery with precision that stems from years of experience and successful angioplasties. Medica is one of Kolkata’s most trusted centres for such types of cardiac procedures.

In India, nearly 4.5 lakh patients undergo angioplasty annually

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Procedure

Angioplasty is a vascular intervention that is typically performed in a minimally invasive or percutaneous method. In addition to ballooning, a stent may also be placed during angioplasty. This procedure is performed in a CATH lab by an interventional cardiologist assisted by trained nurses and technicians.

Treatment at Medica

Each year, our team of renowned cardiologists and surgeons diagnose and treat over hundreds of adults and children. We are also giving our best to provide treatment for highly complicated cases.

Angioplasty helps to:

  • Open up the shrunken arteries
  • Relieves chest pain
  • Help out to in treating patients who have had recent heart attacks

And the benefits of Angioplasty are:

  • It is less invasive procedure
  • Surgery is less expensive
  • Local anaesthesia is used (other types of heart surgery require general anaesthesia)
  • Very small incision is required
  • Shorter recovery-time
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Conditions Treated through Angioplasty

  • Coronary Angioplasty: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a treatment for narrowed or blocked coronary arteries caused by cholesterol-laden plaque build-up. PCI for stable coronary artery disease reduces chest pain but not the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or other major cardiovascular events.
  • Carotid Angioplasty: Carotid stenting is performed in patients who have carotid artery stenosis and are at high risk for carotid endarterectomy.
  • Angioplasty of the Renal Artery: This procedure is used to treat atherosclerotic narrowing of the renal artery with or without stenting. Renal artery stenosis can lead to hypertension and kidney function loss.

  • Angioplasty of the Veins: This is done to treat subclavian vein stenosis caused by thoracic outlet syndrome.

A moderate amount of cardiac blockage is often in the 40-70 percent range

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Results with Angioplasty

If there are no complications, patients will be discharged the following day. The sheath is removed after the puncture site is checked for bleeding. Patients will be asked to walk around after 2-6 hours and will be able to resume normal, non-strengthening activities in a week. After two weeks, the patient can start doing low-level exercises.

Our dedicated team of doctors and nurses will be with you at every step of your recovery. Our care extends beyond the time you have spent at our hospital. Our doctors will ensure your rapid recovery even after getting discharged.

What are the Precautionary Measures Patients have to Take after Angioplasty?

There is a list of the rules which the heart surgeon will advise after the surgery. It is critical to follow these rules very seriously for a healthy, better recovery and the best result after surgery. These are also known as the ‘rule of five’ or ‘hand rule.’ The patients have to remember these rules or tips:

  • Rule 1: Regular taking of medicine advised by a doctor: It is prevalent for the patient forgets or, if there are no complaints, they stop taking the medication without taking expert advice, and it may cause a further problem for the patient. The patient should continue to take the blood thinners after angioplasty without any missing dose. It will save the patient from re-formation of lump blood.
  • Rule 2: Do not avoid or ignore any problem you are having: if an angioplasty patient is having any pain, tightness in the chest, breathing difficulty, not feeling thirsty, they should not avoid it and take it seriously and take advice from the heart. Suppose symptoms occur at an unusual time like late night or early morning or any awkward location, for example, while going to the washroom. Patients should take it seriously. It could be a severe condition and may cause danger to life.
  • Rule 3: Controlled and healthy diet: After angioplasty, patients make unnecessary changes in their diet that are not required, and also, they decrease their dietary intake, which is unsafe. They should follow a normal and healthy diet without adding unnecessary food items. If they are confused, they can take dieticians’ advice to know what and how much they have to take in their regular diet.
  • Rule 4: Average or typical exercise after the stenting procedure: It is a myth that patients should have bed rest after angioplasty. Patients should do mild exercise like walking on the plain surface. If they do proper exercise and take good care of themselves, they can return to their regular exercise strength after one month of surgery, like weight lifting or walking on slopes. Heavy exercises avoided for 4-6 weeks.
  • Rule 5: Regular follow-up is a must: Regular check-up is essential after angioplasty. The doctor wants to change the medicine based on the recovery. Test for checking the stent can also be advised at the right time, as delay can cause significant damage to the heart.

The overall conclusion is, for a successful treatment, the essence of angioplasty/stenting, after surgery obeys the advice and recommendations, gives the key to a successful long-term result. However, as a human, it should be understood that even small mistakes in the follow-up advice may result in unwanted problems.

The patient should follow the below instructions:

  • Strictly NO to smoking.
  • No to alcohol
  • Low cholesterol levels to be maintained
  • Maintain a healthy weight.
  • Must keep diabetes and high blood pressure under control.
  • Keep the area of the surgery site dry at least 24 to 48 hours
  • Plenty of water intake
  • At least for a week, avoid swimming or bathing.
  • Avoid Stress
  • Get a sound sleep and rest your mind as much as possible
  • Take heart-protective nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and a high fiber diet.

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COMMON QUESTIONS

Walking, climbing stairs, and performing routine tasks are usually not a problem. After five days, your doctor will most likely say you can resume moderate activity, but avoid overexertion that causes shortness of breath, tiredness, or chest pain.

If the stents close in some cases, doctors can perform procedures to reopen the stent or even place new stents in the area. However, removing a heart stent is not an option because normal body tissue begins to form in and around the stent after it is placed in the artery.

The angioplasty procedure has a high success rate. Angioplasty is successful in opening blocked blood vessels near the heart in more than 90% of patients. Approximately 30 to 40% of such patients experience re-narrowing of the blood vessel at the site of balloon inflation.

An angioplasty is a procedure that opens narrow or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to the heart, which are also known as coronary arteries. A coronary artery stent is a small metal mesh tube that expands inside the artery. The stent is frequently placed immediately following or during an angioplasty.

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